Jewellery Facts

Wedding Anniversaries

Wedding Anniversaries were originally known by the number of years a couple had been married.

The traditional gift from a husband to his wife on their 1st anniversary was an eternity ring.

In medieval times it became popular in central Europe to celebrate the 25th and 50th Anniversaries with the husband crowning his wife with a wreath made of silver or gold. Although this practice has not continued we still use the terms 'Silver' and 'Golden' to describe the 25th and 50th anniversaries respectively. In Biblical times a 50th anniversary was called a jubilee and publicly announced with a trumpet fanfare.


Birthstones by Month

January - Garnet
February - Amethyst
March - Aquamarine
April - Diamond
May - Emerald
June - Pearl
July - Ruby
August - Peridot
September - Sapphire
October - Tourmaline
November - Citrine
December - Blue Topaz

Zodiac Birthstones

Aries (21 Mar - 20 Apr) - Aquamarine, Sapphire, Diamond,
Taurus (21 Apr - 20 May) - Diamond, Emerald, Sapphire
Gemini (21 May - 20 Jun) - Emerald, Pearl, Ruby
Cancer (22 Jun - 23 Jul) - Emerald, Pearl, Ruby
Leo (24 Jul - 23 Aug) - Peridot, Ruby
Virgo (24 Aug - 23 Sep) - Peridot, Sapphire
Libra (24 Sep - 22 Oct) - Aquamarine, Opal, Sapphire, Tourmaline
Scorpio (23 Oct - 22 Nov) - Aquamarine, Opal, Topaz, Tourmaline
Sagittarius (23 Nov - 22 Dec) - Blue Topaz, Citrine, Ruby
Capricorn (23 Dec - 20 Jan) - Garnet, Ruby, Blue Topaz
Aquarius (21 Jan - 19 Feb) - Amethyst, Garnet
Pisces (20 Feb - 20 Mar) - Amethyst

Zodiac Stones

Aries - Diamond
Taurus - Emerald
Gemini - Agate
Cancer - Pearl
Leo - Ruby
Virgo - Sardonyx
Libra - Sapphire
Scorpio - Opal
Sagittarius - Topaz
Capricorn - Amethyst
Aquarius - Aquamarine
Pisces - Moonstone


Amethyst is a member of the quartz family of gemstones and ranges in colour from pale mauve to dark violet. It has been popular since pre-Roman times. The Greeks believed amethyst gems could prevent intoxication and medieval European soldiers wore amethyst amulets to protect them in battle.
Properties: Courage, psychic energy, dreams, healing addictions, peace, happiness, love
Birthstone: February
Chakra: Crown
Country of Origin: Brazil, Madagascar, India
Zodiac: Sagittarius, Pisces, Capricorn

Aquamarine is member of the Beryl family of gemstones. For hundreds of years it has been believed that the oceans energy is held in the aquamarine. Sailors believed that by wearing an amulet made of aquamarine they would be protected during storms. Aquamarine's clarity is often seen as its finest feature as it is usually eye-clean. It ranges in colour from pale to deep blue.
Properties: Courage, purification, peace, psychic awareness, self-expression, balances all the chakras
Country of Origin: Brazil, Madagascar, USA
Birthstone: March

Citrine is a member of the quartz family of gemstones. It has been used for protection against the plague, skin problems and evil thoughts. It is also believed to work against bites from snakes and other poisonous reptiles. It ranges in colour from pale yellow to yellowish brown and is often seen as a bright golden yellow. Its name comes from citron the French word for lemon. It is meant to symbolise happiness, help digestion, remove toxins from the body and help with depression, constipation and diabetes.
Properties: Psychic powers, protection, creativity, sexual energy, deflects nightmares
Country of Origin: Brazil, France, Madagascar
Birthstone: November

Cubic Zirconia
Cubic Zirconia is made from Zirconium Dioxide, this is synthesized for use as a diamond simulant. The synthesized stone is hard, optically flawless and usually colourless, but can be made in a variety of colours. These include purple, champagne, green, blue and pink.

There are four things to look for when purchasing a diamond, known as the 4 Cs. These are cut, colour, clarity and carat weight. Cut refers to the shape and symmetry of the stone. These include antique, baguette, baguette tapered, briolette, cabochon, emerald, heart, marquise, octagon, oval, pear, princess, round brilliant, square and trilliant. Colour in white diamonds, may vary from colourless to yellow or brown tints. The colour scale starts at D and goes through to Z with D being almost clear white. Clarity is a measure of imperfections or inclusions in a diamond. The less inclusions the more valuable the stone is. Carat weight is a measure of the size of a stone and comes from the word carob which was a small bean used in ancient times to measure gem weight.
Properties: Courage, strength, healing, protection, spirituality, mental and sexual abilities.
Diamond Clarity Scale: Flawless (Loupe clean), IF (Internally clean), VVS1&2 (Very very slight inclusion), VS1&2 (Very slight inclusion), SI1&2 (Slight inclusion), P1,2&3 (Pique - eye visible)
Country of Origin: South Africa, Australia
Birthstone: April

Muslems believe that the first of the seven heavens is made up of emeralds. Synthetic Emeralds are a very high quality man-made stone, created by the same forces that produce natural emeralds. Under high pressure and temperature, real emerald crystals are used to produce these fantastic emeralds. Natural emeralds are extremely sought after they are nearly always included and vary greatly in quality and price.
Properties: Prosperity, mental and psychic abilities, dreams, meditation, visual acuity, love, peace, balance, opens the heart chakra
Chakra: Heart
Country of Origin: Colombia, Russia, Zambia, Zimbabwe
Birthstone: May

Garnet was very popular in the Bronze Age. It is believed during the Great Flood that a radiant red garnet illuminated the sea at night and guided Noah to bring the ark to land. Garnet's are believed to contain protective powers, the Crusaders setting them in their body armour, signet rings, belt buckles and other personal objects for safety during battle and to bring them peace and tranquility when they returned home. It is believed the name garnet came from the word pomegranate because of its red garnet coloured seeds or from the Latin word granum meaning grain as the typical shape of the garnet is like the pomegranate's seeds. Garnet comes in a variety of colours, Almandine, Pyrope, Spessartine, Grossular, Andradite, Rhodolite and Malaia. Colours include reds, oranges, yellows, burgundies and greens.
Hardness: 7.5
Properties: Strength, physical energy, healing,  protection, purification, compassion
Chakras: Opens the base and crown chakras
Country of Origin: South Africa, USA, Siberia, Italy, Australia
Birthstone: January

Iolite is a transparent light blue, yellow grey and pretty violet blue colour and is sometimes known as water sapphire. One stone can show the three different colours. It also became known as Vikings Compass because of its ability to determine the direction of the sun on overcast days.
Properties: Establishes accurate visions

The pearl is the oldest known gem. It was believed to be a symbol of the moon and have magical powers. The pearl represents purity and innocence so is an ideal wedding gift. The Chinese used it medicinally for eye problems, heart trouble, indigestion, fever and bleeding. In India pearls were believed to give peace of mind and strength of body and soul. Muslims believe if they are good they will be crowned with pearls of incomparable luster and attended by beautiful maidens resembling hidden pearls upon entering the Kingdom of Heaven. English knights wore pearls during battle to protect themselves from harm. In 1919 a method of cultivating pearls was achieved and patented in Japan. Natural pearls are formed when an irritant enters an oyster (mollusk). To protect itself the oyster secretes a fluid which coats the irritant. The coating is known as nacre. With many layers a pearl is formed. Cultured pearls are formed by surgically implanting a mother-of-pearl bead or nuclei which is then coated in nacre by the oyster. They are still real pearls. They have just had help in getting started. Nearly all pearls sold today are cultured pearls.
Properties: Manifests truth, peace and sincerity
Country of Origin: Australia, Indian Ocean, Persian Gulf
Birthstone: June

Peridot has always been regarded as having mystical powers. It is believed to stave off anxiety, improve speech and to give success with relationships and marriage. Peridot was used by the Ancient Egyptians, Greeks and Romans. Hawaiin peoples believe peridot is the Goddess Pele's tears. It was one of the stones in the high priest's breatplate representing one of the twelve tribes of Israel. Powdered peridot has been used to treat asthma. Peridot can range from a light yellow green to an intense bright green to olive. The stone has a natural rich glow.
Properties: Protection, prosperity, sleep, health, emotional balance, intuition
Country of Origin: Zeberget (Red Sea), Hawaii, USA
Birthstone: August

The word ruby comes from the ancient Latin word rubeus. Rubies are some of the most sort after gemstones available, the majority are found in Thailand, Burma and Africa. Hindus considered the ruby to be ratnaraj or the King of Precious Stones. It has long been considered to have mystical and prophetic powers giving the wearer the ability to predict the future. In ancient times the Burmese believed inserting one beneath the skin gave the wearer protection from accidents and attacks. Rubies are nearly as hard as diamonds so are ideal for jewellery. Natural rubies normally have inclusions which may be dissolved through heating.
Properties: Prosperity, power, courage, integrity, joy, deflects nightmares
Country of Origin: Burma
Birthstone: July

The word Sapphire is derived from the Latin Sapphirus. Sapphires come in a variety of colours from the dark black of cheaper Australian Sapphires through to mid blue and the sky blue of the Ceylon Sapphire, Pink, Green, Yellow and even Purple. Sapphires were believed to contain the power of wisdom and would enable the wearer to find solutions to problems. The Persians called the sapphire the celestial stone as its blue colour was likened to the heavens. It is believed to represent truth and sincerity. Sapphires are nearly as hard as diamonds and so ideal for jewellery.
Properties: Psychic abilities, inspiration, love, meditation, peace, healing, power, prosperity, protection
Country of Origin: Australia, Thailand, Burma, Vietnam, Africa and Sri Lanka
Birthstone: September

Topaz - Blue Topaz
The modern word topaz has been derived from the Sanskrit work tapas. Topaz has been used back as far as ancient Egyptian times and in the middle ages was believed to strengthen the mind. Blue topaz comes in variety of shapes, sizes and colour. It ranges from pale blue to deeper blue. Colours include the sky blue topaz, swiss blue topaz and london blue topaz.
Properties: Protection, healing, dieting, prosperity, love, emotional balance, tranquility, creativity
Country of Origin: Brazil, Germany, Nigeria
Birthstone: December


Gemstone Properties

Balancing physical, emotional, intellectual and spiritual energies; perceptiveness, strength, inspiration, awakening talents

Success, joy, self-expression, awakening heart, soothing, harmony, balancing

Soothing, calming, cleansing

Contentment, spirituality, dreams, healing, peace, happiness, love, intuition

Intellectual stimulation, attunement, releasing, dispelling tension, connecting

Intellect, achieving results, healing, insight, humanitarianism, meditation, balance, creativity

Courage, purification, peace, intuition, self-expression, balance, preparedness

Healing, money, mental agility, visual acuity, peace, opening heart, motivation, leadership

Intuitive energy, dreams, healing, insight, stilling the mind, concentration, self transformation

Courage, intense healing, renewal, strength, victory, intuitive decision making

Purification, peace, calming, memory, awareness, appreciation of nature

Precision, analytical capabilities, physical energy, verbal skill, peace, spirituality

Verbal skill, healing, compassion, calming, growth, intuition, hope

Easing heartache, stamina, wisdom, peace, love, communication, vitality, inner strength

Balancing male-female energy, love, grace, compassion, clemency, personal growth

Intuition, comfort, protection, creativity, physical energy, wealth, mental awakening

Diplomacy, quieting emotions, visualization

Crystal Quartz
Intensifying energy, spiritual development, healing, raising consciousness

Courage, strength, healing, protection, spirituality, mental abilities

Self-reliance, stamina, patience, recognition of potential, understanding, communication of ideas

Love, domestic bliss, sensitivity, loyalty, memory, mental capacity, harmony, focus, eliminating negativity

Stability, impartial reasoning, responsibility, concentration, health

Fossilized Wood
Accomplishments, improvement of one’s environment, communication, innovation

Health, removing negativity, awareness, commitment, regeneration, order, insight

Mental attunement, memory, calming, balance, focusing energy and emotions, peace, inner happiness, transforming negativity

Awareness, calm, emotional expression, observation, patience, eliminating negativity

Intuition, spiritual growth, healing, balance, releasing discord, awakening to inner knowledge

Fidelity, dreams, realization of potential, peace, accord, resourcefulness, accomplishment

Protection, nurturing, joy, awareness; balancing of physical, emotional, intellectual and spiritual energies

Alignment, spiritual connection, transformation, clarity, peace, progression, discernment

Lapis Lazuli
Wisdom, intuition, awareness, objectivity, clarity, creativity, expanded consciousness, dreams, purity, courage, serenity

Transformation, insight, clarifying emotions, fidelity, loyalty, practicality

Original thinking, alleviation of sorrow

Introspection, reflection, beginnings, insight, tenderness, harmony, peace, travel

Mother of Pearl
Mental clarity, intuition, sensitivity, imagination, adaptability, cooperation

Clarity, deflecting negativity, protection, healing

Self-control, decision making, intuition, recognition of personal strengths

Creativity, spontaneity, relationships, memory, happy dreams and changes

Purity, faith, charity, innocence, integrity, focus, wisdom, spirituality, sincerity, fertility

Warmth, friendliness, understanding, openness in love and relationships, regulation of cycles

Defense, prevention, protection from negativity, physical wholeness, memory

Love, emotional balance, cleansing, renewal, relaxation, expansion of consciousness

Peace, generosity, attention to details

Rose Quartz
Love, peace, happiness, gentleness, healing emotional wounds

Nurturing, spiritual wisdom, attainment of values, economic stability, protection from distress

Joy, peace, beauty, intuition, prosperity, fulfillment of dreams

Smoky Quartz
Dissolving emotional blockage, clearing the mind, cooperation, personal pride, joy in living, attentiveness to the moment, protection

Wisdom, logic, calmness, healing, stress reduction, companionship, self-esteem

Alleviating fears, energizing, cleansing

Communication, intuition, protection, symmetry, decision-making, spirituality

Tiger Eye
Practicality, peacefulness, clarity, intelligence, intuition, new experiences, financial stability, calmness, releasing inhibitions

True love, success in endeavors, understanding of interrelationships, expression of ideas, trust, health, personal expansion and growth

Energizing, soul-searching, releasing

Spiritual attunement, cleansing, healing, protection, valor, soothing, peace of mind, guidance through the unknown, romantic spontaneity

Balance, re-birth, foresight, emotional balance.


Watch Care

Your timepiece is a precision built instrument. It is normally worn on the wrist, where it can be subject to damage or abuse, often without you realising it. Take care of it and it will continue to serve you faithfully. Always clean off dirt, dust or perspiration, and wipe dry as soon as possible if a timepiece becomes wet. Regular cleaning of resin straps to remove skin salts or chlorine from swimming pools will extend its life and soft feel. Some watch models are water resistant to varying degrees while others are not.

The Term 'Water Resistant'

With the term "water resistant", please bear in mind that the degree of "resistancy" relates to pressure, measured in a static condition, at a given depth under water. But remember, the faster an object is moved in or against water, the greater the pressure. For that reason a watch that may be water resistant to 30 metres (approx 100ft) may leak if exposed to water coming forcefully from a tap, or worn whilst vigorously swimming, or jumping into water or diving, as the increased pressure may exceed the designed static resistancy. N.B. modern power showers can run up to 3 bar pressure. This is equal to 30 metres depth!

Handling of Non-Water Resistant Watches

If your watch is not water resistant (see back of the case or dial to determine this) protect or remove your watch when washing your hands, working or playing around water or walking in the rain. Regular hot showers cause the gaskets to distort, dry out grease and prematurely age. Moisture ingress into your watches circuit boards is impossible to remove 100% so can cause electrical shorts in the future, even if a service has been carried out.

Handling of Water Resistant Watches

Although water-resistant watches are warranted, steps should be taken to avoid damage that results from mishandling: 
• Do not operate the crown or push-button in the water or while the watch is wet. Tighten screw lock crown completely. 
• Should the watch become immersed in water, dry it off immediately. If the watch comes in contact with salt water, be sure to rinse it thoroughly in warm fresh water to remove any trace of salt. 
• If a watch is wet from cleaning or by accident, never store it in a closed container. It should be dried immediately or taken to a watchmaker or jeweller if moisture is inside the case to prevent damage from rust. 
• Parts such as the crown, packing and other water-resistant materials should be replaced every year or two to ensure water resistance.

Care for Metal Bracelets

To extend the life and maintain the good appearance of the metal watch bracelet, the following recommendations are given: 
• Be aware that since the watch and bracelet is worn next to the skin, it collects dust and perspiration and becomes soiled if not cleaned regularly. This is particularly true of the inner parts of the links or mesh of the bracelet. 
• Soil and rust, when present in a bracelet, are dissolved by perspiration and can cause staining of cuffs and irritation of the skin in some instances. 
• Heavy perspiration should be wiped off the watch and bracelet with a soft dry cloth. The bracelet should be cleaned occasionally by using an old toothbrush and warm soapy water after which the soap is thoroughly rinsed with clear water and the bracelet dried completely. The foregoing manner of cleaning should not be done if the watch is not water-resistant but should instead be done by your jeweller. 

Care for Leather Straps

• Heavy perspiration, if not removed from a leather strap, can wash out the natural oils and cause the leather to become dry and deteriorate. Any moisture should be blotted with a soft dry cloth or paper towel and the strap allowed to dry naturally. 
• Salt residue & soil can be removed from the leather by cleaning with a dampened soft cloth and mild soap or saddle soap. 
• Occasionally, the inside surface of the strap should be cleaned by using a soft cloth dampened with alcohol. 
• The strap should always be worn a little loosely (one finger space between wrist and strap) to allow air to circulate, causing any moisture to evaporate.

Care for Resin Straps

Regular cleaning of resin straps to remove skin salts or chlorine from swimming pools will extend its life and soft feel. 

Care for Rubber Straps

• Rubber straps should be washed frequently with mild soap and warm water using a soft brush. 
• Thorough cleaning, using the same method, should especially be done after use in salt water. 
• Solvents, oils, perspiration, tanning lotion and salt can cause rubber to deteriorate if not removed.


Diamond Guide

Diamonds have been sought after for centuries as the rarest and most precious of gems. Billions of years ago, below the earth’s surface, extreme forces of heat and pressure transformed carbon into diamond crystals. These diamond crystals were first discovered around 800 BC in riverbanks and it wasn’t until around 150 years ago that diamonds were discovered hidden in Kimberlite rock formations.

The forces pushing these formations to the earth’s surface were so extreme that only a few crystals surfaced, hence the rarity of the diamond. Diamonds are the birthstone for the month of April. Besides being the most popular gemstone for engagement rings, diamond is the accepted anniversary gem for the 10th and 60th years of marriage.

The name ‘diamond’ comes from the Greek word ‘adamas’ meaning unconquerable suggesting the Eternity of love. In fact, diamonds have been the traditional symbol of love since ancient Greece.

Diamonds are internationally graded under the standards of the 4C’s (cut, colour, clarity and carat weight).